The process of the burning of fuels release emissions into the air and surrounds the earth’s atmosphere like a blanket, thereby trapping an excess amount of the sun’s heat, is known as global warming. This warming causes a variety of unpredictable changes in the balance of the world’s climate systems which results in Climate Change. The impacts of climate change is currently being seen across the globe through the serious disruptions in the entire worlds’ weather and climate patterns, including impacts on rainfall, extreme weather events and sea level rise. Various global studies have indicated that scientists have observed the following:
(i) decrease in snow and ice extent;
(ii) an average decrease of rainfall over land surfaces and in sub tropics; continuing global mean sea level rise of 1.5mm/yr;
(iii) increased indications of the extreme weather
(iv) increased number of heat waves especially over land surface; and
(v) increased likelihood of mean and peak precipitation from cyclones.
Human-induced climate change is thus now regarded as the greatest environmental threat facing planet earth this century.
Climate Change is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activities, natural resources and physical activities. Global climate varies naturally, but scientists agree that rising concentrations of anthropogenic produced greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are leading to changes in the atmosphere. The effects of Climate Change have already been observed and scientific findings indicate that precautionary and prompt action is necessary. Gases that have an effect on the climate include methane, nitrous oxide and in particular carbon dioxide.